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The central dogma of modern biochemistry is based on the coded information contained within deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Double stranded DNA is converted to single stranded RNA. RNA is then converted to a linear strand of amino acids, which subsequently fold into three-dimensional proteins. These proteins act as structural components of cells within the body or as functional biochemical machines. The building of cellular proteins from the encoded instructions within DNA occurs in two steps: transcription and translation.